On first glance, this painting might not seem terribly special, but it’s actually one of the most analyzed paintings in the history of art. It’s called “Las Meninas,” or “The Maids of Honor,” painted by Diego Velázquez in 1656, and it depicts a scene in the life of the Spanish Royal Court. A well-dressed child princess refuses a glass of water from a handmaid, while a dwarf teases a dog. A second dwarf stands next to them, while the artist himself pauses at his canvas. Two more people whisper in the background, while a third appears to be exiting the room, and why wouldn’t he when there seems to be so little going on?
Even the dog looks bored. But look more closely. The two people reflected in the blurry mirror at the back, easily missed at first glance, are none other than King Philip IV and Queen Mariana, seemingly changing the scene from a simple depiction of court life to that of a royal portrait. And with this piece of information, we can begin to understand far more about the painting and why it has captivated viewers for centuries.
First, there’s the historical context. When “Las Meninas” was painted at the end of Philip’s reign, the Spanish Empire was in a period of decline, having suffered defeat in The Thirty Years War, as well as economic and political difficulties. The King himself had also suffered misfortune, losing both his first wife and his only heir to the throne before remarrying. But the painting obscures their struggle to provide food for their household. Even the monarch’s advanced age is concealed through the blurring of the mirror. What we do see in the geometric center of the canvas, brightly illuminated by the light from the window, in the Infanta Margarita Teresa, the King’s only living legitimate child at the time.
Her glowing and healthy appearance is an idealized view of the struggling empire’s future. However, the Infanta is not the only center of the painting. Through the clever use of perspective, as well as painting the work life-sized, on a 10.5 x 9 foot canvas, Velázquez blurs the boundary between art and reality, creating the sense of a three-dimensional picture that we can walk into. The line between the ceiling and the wall converges to the open door, further creating the perception of the painting as a physical space seen from the viewer’s perspective. In this sense, the audience and the real world are the focus, underlined by the three figures looking straight at the viewer. But there is still another focal point.
The line formed by the light fixtures leads to the center of the back wall to the mirror reflecting the royal couple. And its positioning relative to the viewer has led to radically different interpretations of the entire work. The mirror could be reflecting the King and Queen posing for their portrait, or is it reflecting the canvas? And what do we make of the fact that Velázquez never painted the royal portrait implied here?
Could the painting actually be depicting its own creation instead? With the incorporation of the mirror into his work, Velázquez elevated the art of painting from its perception as a simple craft to an intellectual endeavor. With its three competing center points, “Las Meninas” captures the contrast between the ideal, the real, and the reflected worlds, maintaining an unresolved tension between them to tell a more complex story than any mirror can provide.